一个处女座的程序猿 2021-08-01 12:42:03 阅读数:223
Paper：自动驾驶领域L级别SAE标准《道路机动车辆驾驶自动化系统相关术语的分类和定义&Taxonomy and Definitions for Terms Related to Driving Automation Systems for On-Road Motor Vehicles》翻译与解读
|This Recommended Practice provides a taxonomy describing the full range of levels of driving automation in on-road motor vehicles and includes functional definitions for advanced levels of driving automation and related terms and definitions. This Recommended Practice does not provide specifications, or otherwise impose requirements on, driving automation systems. Standardizing levels of driving automation and supporting terms serves several purposes, including:
|These revisions, while substantial, preserve the original SAE J3016:JAN2014 level names, numbers, and functional distinctions, as well as the supporting terms. However, this version of J3016:
||这些修订虽然内容重大，但保留了SAE J3016: 2014年1月的级别名称、编号、功能区别以及支持条款。然而，这个版本的J3016:
|This Recommended Practice provides a taxonomy for motor vehicle driving automation systems that perform part or all of the dynamic driving task (DDT) on a sustained basis and that range in level from no driving automation (level 0) to full driving automation (level 5). It provides detailed definitions for these six levels of driving automation in the context of motor vehicles (hereafter also referred to as “vehicle” or “vehicles”) and their operation on roadways. These level definitions, along with additional supporting terms and definitions provided herein, can be used to describe the full range of driving automation features equipped on motor vehicles in a functionally consistent and coherent manner. “On-road” refers to publicly accessible roadways (including parking areas and private campuses that permit public access) that collectively serve users of vehicles of all classes and driving automation levels (including no driving automation), as well as motorcyclists, pedal cyclists, and pedestrians.
The levels apply to the driving automation feature(s) that are engaged in any given instance of on-road operation of an equipped vehicle. As such, although a given vehicle may be equipped with a driving automation system that is capable of delivering multiple driving automation features that perform at different levels, the level of driving automation exhibited in any given instance is determined by the feature(s) that are engaged.
This document also refers to three primary actors in driving: the (human) driver, the driving automation system, and other vehicle systems and components. These other vehicle systems (or the vehicle in general terms) do not include the driving automation system in this model, even though as a practical matter a driving automation system may actually share hardware and software components with other vehicle systems, such as a processing module(s) or operating code.
|The levels of driving automation are defined by reference to the specific role played by each of the three primary actors in performance of the DDT. “Role” in this context refers to the expected role of a given primary actor, based on the design of the driving automation system in question and not necessarily to the actual performance of a given primary actor. For example, a driver who fails to monitor the roadway during engagement of a level 1 adaptive cruise control (ACC) system still has the role of driver, even while s/he is neglecting it.
Active safety systems, such as electronic stability control and automated emergency braking, and certain types of driver assistance systems, such as lane keeping assistance, are excluded from the scope of this driving automation taxonomy because they do not perform part or all of the DDT on a sustained basis and, rather, merely provide momentary intervention during potentially hazardous situations. Due to the momentary nature of the actions of active safety systems, their intervention does not change or eliminate the role of the driver in performing part or all of the DDT, and thus are not considered to be driving automation.
It should, however, be noted that crash avoidance features, including intervention-type active safety systems, may be included in vehicles equipped with driving automation systems at any level. For ADS-equipped vehicles (i.e., levels 3-5) that perform the complete DDT, crash avoidance capability is part of ADS functionality.
|The following publications form a part of this specification to the extent specified herein. Unless otherwise indicated, the latest issue of SAE publications shall apply.
2.1 Applicable Documents
J670 Vehicle Dynamics Terminology (J670:JAN2008).
J3063 Active Safety Systems Terms & Definitions (J3063:NOV2015).
49 U.S.C. § 30102(a)(6) (definition of motor vehicle).
Gasser, Tom et al. “Legal consequences of an increase in vehicle automation”, July 23, 2013, available at http://bast.opus.hbz-nrw.de/volltexte/2013/723/pdf/Legal_consequences_of_an_increase_in_vehicle_automation.pdf.
Michon, J.A., 1985. A CRITICAL VIEW OF DRIVER BEHAVIOR MODELS: WHAT DO WE KNOW, WHAT SHOULD WE DO? In L. Evans & R. C. Schwing (Eds.). Human behavior and traffic safety (pp. 485-520). New York: Plenum Press, 1985.
Crash Avoidance Metrics Partnership – Automated Vehicle Research Consortium, “Automated Vehicle Research for Enhanced Safety – Final Report,” (in publication).
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. “Preliminary Statement of Policy Concerning Automated Vehicles,”, May 30, 2013, available at http://www.nhtsa.gov/About+NHTSA/Press+Releases/U.S.+Department+of+Transportation+Releases+ Policy+on+Automated+Vehicle+Development.
Smith, Bryant Walker. Engineers and Lawyers Should Speak the Same Robot Language, in ROBOT LAW (2015), available at https://newlypossible.org.
(J.A。1985。对驾驶员行为模型的批判观点:我们知道什么，我们应该做什么?L. Evans & R. C. Schwing(编)。人类行为与交通安全(第485-520页)。纽约:全会出版社，1985年。
|Active safety systems are vehicle systems that sense and monitor conditions inside and outside the vehicle for the purpose of identifying perceived present and potential dangers to the vehicle, occupants, and/or other road users, and automatically intervene to help avoid or mitigate potential collisions via various methods, including alerts to the driver, vehicle system adjustments, and/or active control of the vehicle subsystems (brakes, throttle, suspension, etc.).
NOTE: For purposes of this report, systems that meet the definition of active safety systems are considered to have a design purpose that is primarily focused on improving safety rather than comfort, convenience or general driver assistance. Active safety systems warn or intervene during a high risk event or maneuver.
|The hardware and software that are collectively capable of performing the entire DDT on a sustained basis, regardless of whether it is limited to a specific operational design domain (ODD); this term is used specifically to describe a level 3, 4, or 5 driving automation system.
NOTE: In contrast to ADS, the generic term “driving automation system” (see 3.5) refers to any level 1-5 system or feature that performs part or all of the DDT on a sustained basis. Given the similarity between the generic term, “driving automation system,” and the level 3-5-specific term, “Automated Driving System,” the latter term should be capitalized when spelled out and reduced to its acronym, ADS, as much as possible, while the former term should not be.
Downloaded from SAE International by Lin Liu, Thursday, November 24, 2016
|A vehicle designed to be operated exclusively by a level 4 or level 5 ADS for all trips.
NOTE 1: An ADS-DV is a truly “driverless” vehicle. However, the term “driverless vehicle” is not used herein because it has been, and continues to be, widely misused to refer to any vehicle equipped with a driving automation system, even if that system is not capable of always performing the entire DDT and thus involves a (human) driver for part of a given trip. This is the only category of ADS-operated vehicle that requires neither a conventional nor remote driver during routine operation.
NOTE 2: An ADS-DV might be designed without user interfaces, such as braking, accelerating, steering, and transmission gear selection input devices designed to be operable by a human driver.
NOTE 3: A level 4 ADS-DV by design does not operate outside of its ODD (subject to note 4 below).
NOTE 4: ADS-DVs might be operated temporarily by a conventional or remote driver: 1) to manage transient deviations from the ODD, 2) to address a system failure or 3) while in a marshalling yard before being dispatched.
EXAMPLE 1: A level 4 ADS-DV designed to operate exclusively within a corporate campus where it picks up and discharges passengers along a specific route specified by the ADS-DV dispatcher.
EXAMPLE 2: A level 4 ADS-DV designed to operate exclusively within a geographically prescribed central business district where it delivers parts and supplies using roads (but not necessarily routes) specified by the ADS-DV dispatcher.
EXAMPLE 3: A level 5 ADS-DV capable of operating on all roads that are navigable by a human driver. The user simply inputs a destination, and the ADS-DV automatically navigates to that destination.
The performance of part or all of the DDT on a sustained basis. The performance of part or all of the DDT on a sustained basis.
|The hardware and software that are collectively capable of performing part or all of the DDT on a sustained basis; this term is used generically to describe any system capable of level 1-5 driving automation.
NOTE: In contrast to this generic term for any level 1-5 system, the specific term for a level 3-5 system is “Automated Driving System (ADS).” Given the similarity between the generic term, “driving automation system,” and the level 3-5-specific term, “Automated Driving System,” the latter term should be capitalized when spelled out and reduced to its acronym, ADS, as much as possible, while the former term should not be. (See 3.2)
注:与通用的1-5级系统不同，3-5级系统的具体术语是“自动驾驶系统(ADS)”。鉴于通用术语“驾驶自动化系统”(driving automation system)和3-5级专用术语“自动驾驶系统”(Automated driving system)之间的相似性，后者在拼出来时应该大写，并尽可能缩写成ADS，而前者则不应该这样。(见3.2)
|A driving automation system’s design-specific functionality at a specific level of driving automation within a particular ODD.
NOTE 1: A given driving automation system may have multiple features, each associated with a particular level of driving automation and ODD.
NOTE 2: Each feature satisfies a usage specification.
NOTE 3: Features may be referred to by generic names (e.g., automated parking) or by proprietary names.
EXAMPLE 1: A level 3 ADS feature that performs the DDT, excluding DDT fallback, in high-volume traffic on fully access-controlled freeways.
EXAMPLE 2: A level 4 ADS feature that performs the DDT, including DDT fallback, in a specified geo-fenced urban center.
|A type of vehicle operation with characteristic DDT requirements (e.g., expressway merging, high-speed cruising, low-speed traffic jam, etc.).
NOTE: In the previous version of this document, the term driving mode was used more extensively. In this updated version, operational design domain is the preferred term for many of these uses.
|All of the real-time operational and tactical functions required to operate a vehicle in on-road traffic, excluding the strategic functions such as trip scheduling and selection of destinations and waypoints, and including without limitation:
1. Lateral vehicle motion control via steering (operational);
2. Longitudinal vehicle motion control via acceleration and deceleration (operational);
3. Monitoring the driving environment via object and event detection, recognition, classification, and response preparation (operational and tactical)
4. Object and event response execution (operational and tactical);
5. Maneuver planning (tactical); and
6. Enhancing conspicuity via lighting, signaling and gesturing, etc. (tactical).
NOTE 1: For simplification and to provide a useful shorthand term, subtasks (3) and (4) are referred to collectively as object and event detection and response (OEDR) (see 3.15).
NOTE 2: In this document, reference is made to “complete(ing) the DDT.” This means fully performing all of the subtasks of the DDT, whether by the (human) driver, by the driving automation system, or by both.
NOTE 3: Figure 1 displays a schematic view of the driving task. For more information on the differences between operational, tactical, and strategic functions of driving, see 8.4.
Figure 1 - Schematic view of driving task showing DDT portion
For purposes of DDT performance, level 1 encompasses automation of part of the innermost loop (i.e., either lateral vehicle motion control functionality or longitudinal vehicle motion control functionality and limited OEDR associated with the given axis of vehicle motion control); level 2 encompasses automation of the innermost loop (lateral and longitudinal vehicle motion control and limited OEDR associated with vehicle motion control), and levels 3-5 encompass automation of both inner loops (lateral and longitudinal vehicle motion control and complete OEDR). Note that DDT performance does not include strategic aspects of driving (e.g., determining whether, when and where to travel).
|The response by the user or by an ADS to either perform the DDT or achieve a minimal risk condition after occurrence of a DDT performance-relevant system failure(s) or upon ODD exit.
NOTE 1: The DDT and the DDT fallback are distinct functions, and the capability to perform one does not necessarily entail the ability to perform the other. Thus, a level 3 ADS, which is capable of performing the entire DDT within its operational design domain (ODD), may not be capable of performing the DDT fallback in all situations that require it and thus will issue a request to intervene to the DDT fallback-ready user when necessary.
NOTE 2: At level 3, an ADS is capable of continuing to perform the DDT for at least several seconds after providing the fallback-ready user with a request to intervene. The DDT fallback-ready user is then expected to achieve a minimal risk condition if s/he determines it to be necessary.
NOTE 3: At levels 4 and 5, the ADS must be capable of performing the DDT fallback, as well as achieving a minimal risk condition. Level 4 and 5 ADS-equipped vehicles that are designed to also accommodate operation by a driver (whether conventional or remote) may allow a user to perform the DDT fallback if s/he chooses to do so. However, a level 4 or 5 ADS need not be designed to allow a user to perform DDT fallback and, indeed, may be designed to disallow it in order to reduce crash risk (see 8.3).
NOTE 4: While a level 4 or 5 ADS is performing the DDT fallback, it may be limited by design in speed and/or range of lateral and/or longitudinal vehicle motion control (i.e., it may enter so-called “limp-home mode”).
|EXAMPLE 1: A level 1 adaptive cruise control (ACC) feature experiences a system failure that causes the feature to stop performing its intended function. The human driver performs the DDT fallback by resuming performance of the complete DDT.
EXAMPLE 2: A level 3 ADS feature that performs the entire DDT during traffic jams on freeways is not able to do so when it encounters a crash scene and therefore issues a request to intervene to the DDT fallback-ready user. S/he responds by taking over performance of the entire DDT in order to maneuver around the crash scene. (Note that in this example, a minimal risk condition is not needed or achieved.)
EXAMPLE 3: A level 4 ADS-dedicated vehicle (ADS-DV) that performs the entire DDT within a geo-fenced city center experiences a DDT performance-relevant system failure. In response, the ADS-DV performs the DDT fallback by turning on the hazard flashers, maneuvering the vehicle to the road shoulder and parking it, before automatically summoning emergency assistance. (Note that in this example, the ADS-DV automatically achieves a minimal risk condition.)
The following Figures 2 through 6 illustrate DDT fallback at various levels of driving automation.
Figure 2 - Use case sequence at Level 3 showing ADS engaged, a vehicle failure and the user resuming control
Figure 5 - Use case sequence at Level 4 showing ADS engaged, an ADS failure and the system achieving a minimal risk condition
|The DDT subtask comprising the activities necessary for the real-time, sustained regulation of the y-axis component of vehicle motion.
NOTE: Lateral vehicle motion control includes the detection of the vehicle positioning relative to lane boundaries and application of steering and/or differential braking inputs to maintain appropriate lateral positioning.
|The DDT subtask comprising the activities necessary for the real-time, sustained regulation of the x-axis component of vehicle motion.
NOTE: Longitudinal vehicle motion control includes maintaining set speed as well as detecting a preceding vehicle in the path of the subject vehicle, maintaining an appropriate gap to the preceding vehicle and applying propulsion or braking inputs to cause the vehicle to maintain that speed or gap.
Figure 7 - Diagram showing vehicle axes of motion (SAE J670:JAN2008)
|图7 -显示车辆运动轴的图表(SAE J670: 2008年1月)|
|A condition to which a user or an ADS may bring a vehicle after performing the DDT fallback in order to reduce the risk of a crash when a given trip cannot or should not be completed.
NOTE 1: At levels 1 and 2, the driver may or may not achieve a minimal risk condition in response to a vehicle fault condition or driving automation system failure.
NOTE 2: At level 3, given a DDT performance-relevant system failure in the ADS or vehicle, the DDT fallback-ready user is expected to achieve a minimal risk condition when s/he determines that it is necessary.
NOTE 3: At levels 4 and 5, the ADS is capable of automatically achieving a minimal risk condition when necessary (i.e., due to ODD exit, if applicable, or a DDT performance-relevant system failure in the ADS or vehicle). The characteristics of automated achievement of a minimal risk condition at levels 4 and 5 will vary according to the type and extent of the system failure, the ODD (if any) for the ADS feature in question, and the particular operating conditions when the system failure or ODD exit occurs. It may entail automatically bringing the vehicle to a stop within its current travel path, or it may entail a more extensive maneuver designed to remove the vehicle from an active lane of traffic and/or to automatically return the vehicle to a dispatching facility.
|EXAMPLE 1: A level 2 driving automation system feature that allows a user to stand outside of the vehicle and initiate an automated parking maneuver via wireless device automatically brings the vehicle to a stop within its current travel path when it experiences a DDT performance-relevant system failure.
EXAMPLE 2: A level 4 ADS feature designed to operate a vehicle at high speeds on freeways experiences a DDT performance-relevant system failure and automatically removes the vehicle from the active lane of traffic before coming to a stop.
EXAMPLE 3: A level 4 ADS feature designed to operate a vehicle at high speeds on freeways receives a request by a passenger to stop and automatically removes the vehicle from the active lane of traffic before coming to a stop.
EXAMPLE 4: A vehicle in which a level 4 ADS is installed experiences a DDT performance-relevant system failure in its primary electrical power system. The ADS utilizes a backup power source in order to achieve a minimal risk condition.
|A malfunction in a driving automation system and/or other vehicle system that prevents the driving automation system from reliably sustaining DDT performance (partial or complete).
NOTE 1: This definition applies to vehicle fault conditions and driving automation system failures that prevent a driving automation system from performing at full capability according to design intention.
NOTE 2: This term does not apply to transient lapses in performance by a level 1 or 2 driving automation system that are due to inherent design limitations and that do not otherwise prevent the system from performing its part of the DDT on a sustained basis.
|EXAMPLE 1: A level 1 driving automation system that performs the lateral vehicle motion control subtask of the DDT experiences a DDT performance-relevant system failure in one of its cameras, which prevents it from reliably detecting lane markings. The feature causes a malfunction indication message to be displayed in the center console at the same time that the feature automatically dis-engages, requiring the driver to immediately resume performing the lateral vehicle motion control subtask of the DDT.
EXAMPLE 2: A level 3 ADS experiences a DDT performance-relevant system failure in one of its radar sensors, which prevents it from reliably detecting objects in the vehicle’s pathway. The ADS responds by issuing a request to intervene to the DDT fallback-ready user. The ADS continues to perform the DDT, while reducing vehicle speed, for several seconds to allow time for the DDT fallback-ready user to resume operation of the vehicle in an orderly manner.
EXAMPLE 3: A vehicle with an engaged level 3 ADS experiences a broken tie rod, which causes the vehicle to handle very poorly giving the fallback-ready user ample kinesthetic feedback indicating a vehicle malfunction necessitating intervention. The fallback-ready user responds by resuming the DDT, turning on the hazard lamps, and pulling the vehicle onto the closest road shoulder, thereby achieving a minimal risk condition.
EXAMPLE 4: A level 4 ADS experiences a DDT performance-relevant system failure in one of its computing modules. The ADS transitions to DDT fallback by engaging a redundant computing module(s) to achieve a minimal risk condition.
|A general term referencing a range of functions involving real-time human or machine sensing and processing of data used to operate a vehicle, or to support its operation.
NOTE 1: The terms below describing types of monitoring should be used when the general term “monitor” and its derivatives are insufficiently precise.
NOTE 2: The following four terms (1 – monitor the driver, 2 – monitor the driving environment, 3 – monitor vehicle performance, and 4 – monitor driving automation system performance) describe categories of monitoring (see Scope regarding primary actors).
NOTE 3: The driver state or condition of being receptive to alerts or other indicators of a DDT performance-relevant system failure, as assumed in level 3, is not a form of monitoring. The difference between receptivity and monitoring is best illustrated by example: A person who becomes aware of a fire alarm or a telephone ringing may not necessarily have been monitoring the fire alarm or the telephone. Likewise, a user who becomes aware of a trailer hitch falling off may not necessarily have been monitoring the trailer hitch. By contrast, a driver in a vehicle with an active level 1 ACC system is expected to monitor the driving environment and the ACC performance and otherwise not to wait for an alert to draw his/her attention to a situation requiring a response. See 3.18 below.
注2:以下四个术语(1 -监控驾驶员，2 -监控驾驶环境，3 -监控车辆性能，4 -监控驾驶自动化系统性能)描述了监控的类别(见主要参与者范围)。
3.14.1 MONITOR THE USER
The activities and/or automated routines designed to assess whether and to what degree the user is performing the role specified for him/her.
3.14.2 MONITOR THE DRIVING ENVIRONMENT
The activities and/or automated routines that accomplish real-time roadway environmental object and event detection, recognition, classification, and response preparation (excluding actual response), as needed to operate a vehicle.
3.14.3 MONITOR VEHICLE PERFORMANCE (FOR DDT PERFORMANCE-RELEVANT SYSTEM FAILURES)
The activities and/or automated routines that accomplish real-time evaluation of the vehicle performance, and response preparation, as needed to operate a vehicle.
EXAMPLE 1: While a level 2 driving automation system is engaged in stop-and-go traffic, a malfunctioning brake caliper causes the vehicle to pull slightly to the left when the brakes are applied. The human driver observes that the vehicle is deviating from its lane and either corrects the vehicle’s lateral position or disengages the driving automation system entirely.
3.14.4 MONITOR DRIVING AUTOMATION SYSTEM PERFORMANCE
The activities and/or automated routines for evaluating whether the driving automation system is performing part or all of the DDT appropriately.
EXAMPLE 1: A conventional driver verifies that an engaged ACC system is maintaining an appropriate gap while following a preceding vehicle in a curve.
|The subtasks of the DDT that include monitoring the driving environment (detecting, recognizing, and classifying objects and events and preparing to respond as needed) and executing an appropriate response to such objects and events (i.e., as needed to complete the DDT and/or DDT fallback).||DDT的子任务包括监测驾驶环境(检测、识别和分类对象和事件，并准备响应)和对这些对象和事件执行适当的响应(如，需要完成DDT和/或DDT回滚)。|
|Collectively, the activities performed by a (human) driver (with or without support from one or more level 1 or 2 driving automation features) or by an ADS (level 3-5) to perform the entire DDT for a given vehicle during a trip.
NOTE 1: The term “drive” is not used in this document, however, in many cases it could be used correctly in lieu of “operate.”
NOTE 2: Although use of the term operate/operating implies the existence of an “operator,” this term is not defined or used in this document, which otherwise provides very specific terms and definitions for the various types of ADS-equipped vehicle users (see 3.24).
|The specific conditions under which a given driving automation system or feature thereof is designed to function, including, but not limited to, driving modes.
NOTE 1: An ODD may include geographic, roadway, environmental, traffic, speed, and/or temporal limitations. A given ADS may be designed to operate, for example, only within a geographically-defined military base, only under 25 mph, and/or only in daylight.
NOTE 2: An ODD may include one or more driving modes. For example, a given ADS may be designed to operate a vehicle only on fully access-controlled freeways and in low-speed traffic, high-speed traffic, or in both of these driving modes.
NOTE 3: In the previous version of this document, the term driving mode was used more extensively. In this updated version, ODD is the preferred term for many of these uses.
NOTE 4: Section 6 discusses the significance of ODDs in the context of the levels of driving automation.
|An aspect of consciousness characterized by a person’s ability to reliably and appropriately focus his/her attention in response to a stimulus.
NOTE 1: In level 0-2 driving automation, the driver is expected to be receptive to evident vehicle system failures, such as a broken tie rod.
NOTE 2: In level 3 driving automation, a DDT fallback-ready user is considered to be receptive to a request to intervene and/or to an evident vehicle system failure, whether or not the ADS issues a request to intervene as a result of such a vehicle system failure.
NOTE 3: Monitoring includes receptivity.
|EXAMPLE 1: While a level 3 ADS is performing the DDT in stop-and-go traffic, the left-front tie rod breaks. The DDT fallback-ready user feels that the vehicle has pulled dramatically to the left and intervenes in order to move the vehicle onto the road shoulder.
EXAMPLE 2: While a level 3 ADS is performing the DDT on a free-flowing highway, the left side mirror glass falls out of the housing. The DDT fallback-ready user, while receptive, does not and is not expected to notice this failure, because it is not apparent.
Notification by an ADS to a driver indicating that s/he should promptly perform the DDT fallback. 广告通知司机，指示他/她应立即执行DDT补救措施。
|The driver activities, performed while operating a vehicle with an engaged level 1 or 2 driving automation system, to monitor the driving automation system’s performance, respond to inappropriate actions taken by that system, and to otherwise complete the DDT.
EXAMPLE: A driver notices that an engaged adaptive cruise control (ACC) system is not maintaining headway to a preceding vehicle in a curve and brakes accordingly.
|Performance of part or all of the DDT both between and across external events, including responding to external events and continuing performance of part or all of the DDT in the absence of external events.
NOTE 1: External events are situations in the driving environment that necessitate a response by a driver or driving automation system (e.g., other vehicles, lane markings, traffic signs).
NOTE 2: Sustained performance of part or all of the DDT by a driving automation system changes the user’s role. (See Scope for discussion of roles.) By contrast, an automated intervention that is not sustained according to this definition does not qualify as driving automation. Hence, systems that provide momentary intervention in lateral and/or longitudinal vehicle motion control but do not perform any part of the DDT on a sustained basis (e.g., anti-lock brake systems, electronic stability control, automated emergency braking) are not classifiable (other than at level 0) under the J3016 taxonomy.
NOTE 3: Conventional cruise control does not provide sustained operation because it does not respond to external events. It is therefore also not classifiable (other than at level 0) under the J3016 taxonomy.
|The traversal of an entire travel pathway by a vehicle from the point of origin to a destination.
NOTE: Performance of the DDT during a given trip may be accomplished in whole or in part by a driver, driving automation system, or both.
|A particular level of driving automation within a particular ODD.
EXAMPLE 1: Level 3 driving automation in high-volume traffic on designated fully access-controlled freeways.
EXAMPLE 2: Level 4 driving automation in designated urban centers.
NOTE 1: Each feature satisfies a usage specification.
|A general term referencing the human role in driving automation.
NOTE 1: The following four terms (1 – driver, 2 – passenger, 3 – DDT fallback-ready user, and 4 - dispatcher) describe categories of (human) users.
NOTE 2: These human categories define roles that do not overlap and may be performed in varying sequences during a given trip.
注1:以下四个术语(1 -驾驶员，2 -乘客，3 - DDT后备用户和4 -调度员)描述了(人类)用户的类别。
3.24.1 DRIVER 司机
|A user who performs in real-time part or all of the DDT and/or DDT fallback for a particular vehicle.
NOTE: In a vehicle equipped with a driving automation system, a driver may assume or resume performance of part or all of the DDT from the driving automation system during a given trip.
|18.104.22.168 (CONVENTIONAL) DRIVER
A driver who manually exercises in-vehicle braking, accelerating, steering, and transmission gear selection input devices in order to operate a vehicle.
NOTE: A conventional driver is assumed to be seated in what is normally referred to as “the driver’s seat” in automotive contexts, which is a unique seating position that makes in-vehicle input devices (steering wheel, brake and accelerator pedals, gear shift) accessible to a (human) driver.
22.214.171.124 REMOTE DRIVER
3.24.2 PASSENGER 乘客
|A user in a vehicle who has no role in the operation of that vehicle.
NOTE: A passenger cannot be remote to the vehicle in which s/he is a passenger.
EXAMPLE 1: The person seated in the driver’s seat of a vehicle equipped with a level 4 ADS feature designed to automate high-speed vehicle operation on controlled-access freeways is a passenger while this level 4 feature is engaged. This same person, however, is a driver before engaging this level 4 ADS feature and again after disengaging the feature in order to exit the controlled access freeway.
EXAMPLE 2: The in-vehicle users of a closed-campus shuttle on a university campus equipped with an engaged level 4 ADS are passengers.
EXAMPLE 3: The in-vehicle users of a level 5 ADS-equipped vehicle are passengers whenever the level 5 ADS is engaged.
3.24.3 (DDT) FALLBACK-READY USER (DDT)备用用户
|The user of a vehicle equipped with an engaged level 3 ADS feature who is able to operate the vehicle and is receptive to ADS-issued requests to intervene and to evident DDT performance-relevant system failures in the vehicle compelling him or her to perform the DDT fallback.
NOTE 1: DDT performance by a level 3 ADS assumes that a DDT fallback-ready user is available to perform the DDT as required. There is no such assumption at levels 4 and 5.
NOTE 2: A DDT fallback-ready user who transitions to performing part or all of the DDT becomes a driver.
NOTE 3: A DDT fallback-ready user may be remote to the ADS-equipped vehicle for which s/he serves as the DDT fallback-ready user.
EXAMPLE: A level 3 ADS that is performing the DDT in congested traffic on a freeway encounters emergency responders who are rerouting traffic to the exit due to a serious crash; the ADS issues a request to intervene to the DDT fallback-ready user instructing him or her to resume performing the DDT (i.e., to become a driver).
3.24.4 (ADS-EQUIPPED VEHICLE) DISPATCHER (配备ads的车辆)调度员
|A user(s) who verifies the operational readiness of the vehicle and ADS and engages or disengages the ADS.
NOTE 1: Unless the destination(s) is pre-programmed in the ADS, a dispatcher may also specify the destination(s).
NOTE 2: Only vehicles equipped with a level 4 or 5 ADS designed to operate a vehicle throughout a trip are potentially subject to being dispatched.
NOTE 3: Ensuring operational readiness includes such things as ensuring that conspicuity systems are clean and working, maintaining correct tire pressure and fluid levels, as well as ensuring that on-board diagnostic system checks for the vehicle and ADS indicate the absence of a DDT performance-relevant system failure.
EXAMPLE: A level 4 closed campus delivery vehicle that has experienced a DDT performance-relevant system failure, which forced it to resort to a minimal risk condition by parking on the side of a campus roadway, is returned to its marshalling yard by a dispatcher who becomes a remote driver and is able to perform the DDT using wireless means.
|A machine designed to provide conveyance on public streets, roads, and highways.
NOTE: As used in this document, vehicle refers to motorized vehicles and excludes those operated only on rail lines. For reference, 49 U.S.C. § 30102(a)(6) defines motor vehicle as follows: “motor vehicle means a vehicle driven or drawn by mechanical power and manufactured primarily for use on public streets, roads, and highways, but does not include a vehicle operated only on a rail line.”