Jianghu scuffle of autonomous vehicle OS: the core is the ecological dispute

Netease automotive industry 2021-08-10 12:48:58 阅读数:844

jianghu scuffle autonomous vehicle os

Operating system as a new productivity in the era of intelligent vehicles , It is of great strategic significance to drive the evolution of vehicles from low-level intelligence to high-level intelligence . However, due to the late start of domestic operating system itself 、 have a poor foundation , In the core technology 、 There are obvious deficiencies in terminal products and commercialization , From the past PC、 A smart phone , So far, the emerging field of intelligent vehicles , The dominance of the operating system is mainly in the hands of foreign enterprises .

We should develop intelligent vehicles , The operating system is another big mountain . So , In recent years, local automobile enterprises and related technology companies are actively exploring automobile operating system , From the early on-board operating system to a higher vehicle level OS thorough , Try to get through the new traffic entrance at the vehicle end , The future development of intelligent vehicles “ lifeblood ” Really in your own hands .

Local enterprises scramble to layout cars OS

At present , With the rapid development of automotive intelligence and networking , Drive the car from the driving area 、 The intellectualization of cockpit area and other local functions is rapidly moving forward to a higher level of vehicle intelligence era , Began to become a real talker 、 Autonomous robots that can serve people , The operating system is used to manage and control on-board hardware and software resources “ The central brain ”, The importance is becoming more and more prominent .

In particular, the massive applications brought by automobile intelligence “ Get on the train ” And data interaction requirements , It greatly increases the amount of software code and functional complexity of the whole vehicle , On the other hand , The smart car itself is in the use environment 、 Interactive mode 、 Functional requirements and security requirements PC、 Smart phones are also fundamentally different , As a result, the mature operating system developed and applied in the field of consumer electronics in the past can not meet the development needs of intelligent networked vehicles , How to quickly develop vehicles that meet the evolution needs of intelligent vehicles OS Has become an urgent problem .

The Milky Way OS, picture source : geely

So , In the past two years, many local car companies and technology providers have laid out on-board vehicles OS. For example, Geely Automobile and GAC group , Recently, it has successively announced on-board OS The latest developments in the field , Geely Automobile borrows its Yikatong Technology , Geely galaxy, an intelligent cockpit oriented application, was officially launched a few days ago OS Car engine system . The system adopts the third generation Qualcomm Xiaolong TM Car cabin platform , Multi screen linkage can be realized 、 More user-friendly voice interaction and more immersive matrix application experience , At present, with Geely The more stars L Parameters picture ) The launch of was officially mass produced .

GAC is in its 2021 GAC's independent investment was revealed at the investor open day in G-OS Information related to on-board operating system . according to the understanding of , The system is a new layout of GAC's core software in the field of intelligent cockpit , Developed by Xinghe Zhilian Automobile Technology Co., Ltd., a joint venture between GAC group and iFLYTEK , Have the ability of global basic platform and Internet of vehicles service .

in addition , Such as Evergrande automobile 、 Nezha car And other new car brands also revealed that they are developing an intelligent car operating system . Among them, Nezha automobile is reported to be scheduled for next year 6 Take out the beta in June , Pass the two-year test , Become a mature platform , Then open to all developers .

In the opinion of long Yunzhou, the director of Nezha automobile , When a car is used as an intelligent electronic terminal larger than a mobile phone , The operating system with car attributes becomes very core . For China's auto industry , The automotive operating system is a key step for China's new energy vehicles to become the center of the global automotive industry , It means the voice and leadership of the industry , More importantly . This is also the original intention of Nezha automobile to develop its own automobile operating system .

picture source : Horizon

By comparison , The way horizon enters is slightly different , The vehicle intelligent system with wider application fields is selected OS Start . Horizon's real-time vehicle operating system TogetherOS, Development based on secure microkernel , The next generation oriented domain centralized and central centralized vehicle SoC Platform design , Can be hosted by virtualization Linux、Android、 Zebras 、QNX、 Hongmeng and other mainstream operating systems , So as to meet the operating system requirements of different functional domains on the vehicle , And downward compatible, including Journey Series, including the mainstream vehicle chip platform , Full coverage of automatic driving 、 Intelligent interaction 、 Intelligent vehicle control and other on-board application scenarios , More in-depth exploration of Technology 、 More open .

At horizon, founder and CEO Yu Kai seems , If car companies want to create differentiated 、 With user value 、 Products with market competitiveness , First, we must embrace an open partner ecosystem , To create such an open Ecology , The premise is to invest in some important but common infrastructure that does not bring differentiation , This is TogetherOS The original intention of R & D of .

With the intensive entry of various enterprises , Local enterprises in the automotive industry OS The layout strategy of the field is gradually clear , There are two main routes : The first is based on Linux And other underlying system architecture for in-depth customized development , Including system kernel modification , Such as Huawei Hongmeng OS、AliOS, And the horizon that just entered the game , It's more about designing the operating system from the bottom . The second is based on ROM customized , That is, based on Android、Linux And so on , But it does not involve system kernel modification , Like byd DiLink、 geely GKUI、 Wei to NIO OS、 Xiao peng Xmart OS.

As for playing earlier OS A small car with a name OS、 Phoenix Tree couplet TINNOVE OS etc. , More mainly in the application layer, the relevant functions are realized by calling the existing vehicle service interface of the system , More specifically, the mobile phone screen content is mapped to the on-board central control screen through vehicle machine interconnection , Achieve entertainment 、 Navigation 、 Social functions , It's more like a super App, It's not really OS.

But whatever the technical route , It is the general trend for local enterprises to realize the independent control of automobile operating system . And as Fang Yunzhou said , The operating system serves as the calculation and command center of the whole vehicle , Due to the integration of many chips and sensors , Is a collection of many data , If local enterprises cannot realize the independent control of the operating system , In the future, it will also face greater information security risks .

The technology base needs localization

On the road of realizing the autonomy and controllability of automobile operating system , Although local enterprises are already making efforts , But on the whole , At present, most of the on-board operating systems in the market are based on Android、Linux And QNX And so on , Entire vehicle OS Still dominated by foreign-funded enterprises , The market share is the best proof .

according to ICVTank Analyze the data ,2019 In, the market share of the world's top three intelligent cockpit bottom operating systems reached 88%, among QNX Occupy 43%、Linux+Android Occupy 35%,WinCE Occupy 10%. because Linux free 、 flexibility 、 High security features , It is expected that its market share will further increase in the next few years , To 2023 The market share in the world will reach 53%( contain Android), Even beyond QNX Become the world's largest vehicle bottom operating system .

source : Gaishi Automotive Research Institute analysis and sorting

But in the long run , With the continuous improvement of the intelligent level of the whole vehicle , All environmental data in the vehicle 、 It is an inevitable trend to get through all the perceptual data . This only has the ability of self-control at the bottom , To really form a data closed loop , And ultimately support enterprises to build more rich functions based on this , Including opening up different functional domains , Realize vehicle intelligence . Even cross terminal connections , Let smart cars really integrate into intelligent transportation 、 In smart cities .

It means , If China wants to fill in the car OS A gap in the field , In the final analysis, it is still on the underlying technical support , If local enterprises can't make a breakthrough in the underlying operating system , Realizing self-control will be an empty talk .

picture source : Huawei

Hongmeng OS Although it is Huawei's full scene operating system for the interconnection of all things , The same applies in the automotive field . As a full scene distributed system based on micro kernel OS, Hongmeng OS Distributed architecture is used for the first time , It can realize seamless collaborative experience across terminals . And the design based on microkernel , When other modules have problems , It will not affect the operation of the whole system , The stability of the system is obviously improved . More Than This , Microkernel in scalability 、 Maintainability 、 It is also better than macro kernel in terms of debugging . These advantages are cars OS The required .

So you can see , With Hongmeng OS 2.0 Release , Hongmeng OS Also officially took the step of getting on the bus , Let smart cars really begin to have “ Chinese soul ”.

This year, 4 month , Beijing extreme fox alpha S Huawei HI The version is officially confirmed to be equipped with Hongmeng OS Intelligent interconnection cockpit , Subsequently, BAIC also said that it would launch a new fuel system this year SUV models , It will also carry Hongmeng OS. in addition , Smart car modular architecture released by Sihao automobile at Shanghai Auto Show ——“MIS Haoxue Architecture ” The smart cockpit also said it would use Kirin 990+ Hongmeng OS And other software and hardware systems , In the future, Sihao automobile will build... Based on this architecture 15-20 A competitive new product .

Zebra Zhixing is also working hard for this , It also starts from the bottom to design the operating system . According to the characteristics of different development stages of intelligent vehicles , Zebra chi heng AliOS Formulated the “OS Strategy trilogy ”, That is, from the intelligent vehicle operating system to the intelligent cockpit operating system 、 The evolution route of intelligent vehicle operating system .

picture source : Zebra chi heng

at present , Zebra Zhixing has entered the new layout of intelligent cockpit from the Internet of vehicles . The fastest time is from the second half of this year to next year , Zebra Zhixing's self-developed heterogeneous integrated intelligent cockpit operating system will be in 5-6 Landing on a car brand , The first batch of mass production models include SAIC 、 Ali's joint venture brand Zhiji's heavy model L7.

It means , The autonomous operating system for intelligent cockpit has entered the key stage of mass production application . The analysis reason , The intelligent cockpit is the outpost of the automotive intelligent revolution , Has entered a period of outbreak . According to the monitoring data of Gaogong Intelligent Automobile Research Institute , This year, 1-6 New cars in China ( A joint venture + Independent brand ) The risk on the intelligent cockpit is 139.39 Thousands of cars , Year-on-year growth 97.88%. Behind this , More and more car companies begin to take the intelligent cockpit as the main selling point of new cars .

On the other hand , And autopilot domain  OS  Pay more attention to high real-time 、 Different security , Cockpit area OS  Due to more emphasis on application and developer Ecology , Functional safety requirements are relatively low , It's technically easier to achieve . So the cockpit area OS Became an autonomous vehicle OS A forward position to break through .

But in the long run , With the gradual integration of cockpit domain and driving domain , Drive the whole vehicle to a higher level of intelligent form , It must be at the vehicle level OS To support . This means the development of vehicle intelligence oriented OS Be imperative .

Regarding this , Zebra Zhixing has also begun to develop vehicle intelligence OS. In order to increase the R & D investment of operating system , Zebra Zhixing announced not long ago that it will receive another capital increase from the four major shareholders 30 One hundred million yuan , And open a new round of strategic financing window to industrial capital , To seize the strategic highland of the next generation of automotive operating system .

automobile OS The core of the dispute is the ecological dispute

When it comes to operating system localization , Huawei consumers BG Wang Chenglu, President of software department, once pointed out , For underlying platforms such as operating systems , Software usage 、 Market share is whether it can survive 、 The core factor of success , and 16% The market share of is a life and death line . This law is in PC And the era of smart phones has been verified .

stay PC Time , Intel chips +Windows operating system + be based on Windows Rich applications , Almost monopolized the whole industry , And the smartphone era ,Android The system can catch up quickly because it is more open , Become the mainstream of the market . Nowadays, smart cars are AloT Another intelligent mobile terminal in the era , There is no doubt that this iron law will be followed .

“ It's not very difficult to develop an operating system now , Where is the difficulty ? Is to build an ecosystem of operating systems , So enter this virtuous circle or not , Is the core factor of whether an operating system really has market vitality . Bao ran, an expert in information network technology, said .

“ Operating system development is just a drop in the bucket , The degree of completion is only 1%, be left over 99% How many industry partners are willing to adopt your platform .” Huawei consumer business AI Yang Haisong, vice president of the whole scene Business Department of wisdom, even said . The meaning is more obvious than , Make an operating system , Ecology is the core .

Relying on Hongmeng OS, Huawei is building 1+8+N The whole scene of intelligent life , picture source : Hongmeng

That's what I saw , Since the launch of Hongmeng OS Huawei has been actively building Hongmeng ecosystem . Based on the previously published data , At present, Hongmeng OS Has reached cooperation with thousands of hardware companies , Access 300 Many software service providers , These partners are HarmonyOS An important contributor to creating a new cross terminal ultimate experience .

To nurture... From the source “ developer + application ” ecology , Huawei has also been in 2020 year 、2021 In, he donated all the basic capabilities of Hongmeng operating system to the open atom open source foundation twice , The open atom open source foundation integrates the contributions of other participants , formation OpenHarmony Open source project , Huawei continues to participate in OpenHarmony Open Source Project Co Construction .

It is reported that , By 2021 year 5 month 31 Japan , existing 240 A number of joint ventures 、 Co construction institutions and individual contributors participate in Project Co construction , Chun Hongmeng OS The number of developers has reached 50 ten thousand . With the participation of these developers , It not only plays an important role in promoting the development of the whole Hongmeng Ecology , Huawei can also borrow the participation of these developers , Maintain and upgrade the system architecture together , While sharing development costs , Let the system be really applied in more industries and fields .

As a car OS New players in the field , Horizon is also trying to create an open OS ecology . Horizon is releasing TogetherOS At the same time, he announced that he would TogetherOS Open source , And joined seL4 Foundation and Linux The foundation ELISA project .

But this is important for building a car that really meets the intelligent needs of the whole vehicle OS It's not enough , Therefore, horizon also said that it would actively seek cooperation with more open source communities in the future , Join hands with the whole industry to build the bottom base of a vehicle specification level real-time security operating system . at present AutoCore、 Zebra chi heng 、 Changan automobile 、 Great Wall motor 、 Jiangqi group 、 Shanghai automotive industry corporation 、 Lion technology has become TogetherOS The first batch of ecological partners .

After all, for such a huge project as developing the underlying automotive operating system , Not only understand software 、 The hardware also needs to understand the car , Such a complex technical system can not be undertaken by an enterprise , It must be combined with the upstream and downstream forces of the industrial chain , Jointly define technical architecture and standards . And the high threshold of the operating system , It is decided that this project cannot be completed overnight , Capital investment is not affordable for ordinary enterprises , Ecological co construction is the only way .

And look to the future , As more and more developers join the above OS Open ecology , Will accelerate the car OS The localization process of , Let China's auto industry no longer use the operating system “ Lose your voice ”. Maybe compared to QNX、Linux、Android Such as a solid market position , Local players still have a long way to go , But when the industry believes that the realization of automobile OS Self control is a necessary and necessary thing , When the upstream and downstream of the industrial chain are willing to cooperate for it , automobile OS It may not be far from real localization .

For example, Hongmeng OS, According to the latest statistics , By 8 month 6 Japan , The upgrade users of Huawei Hongmeng system have exceeded 5000 ten thousand , Initially occupied a place in the market . In the face of such a fierce development momentum of Hongmeng system , Huawei will even reach... By the end of the previous year 3 The goal of upgrading 100 million devices has been raised to 4 One hundred million units . Next , With Hongmeng OS The application ecology is becoming more and more perfect , Market penetration has increased rapidly , While empowering the interconnection of all things , It is expected to lead independent OS From the already highly centralized operating system market .

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